Yes. This is what the RegEx File and Directories Exclusion does. The documentation of this feature does in fact include an example for excluding files by type.
Since you want to exclude all PDF files from wp-content/uploads you need to create a new RegEx filter of the type Exclude File with the content
This will match all files with extensions .pdf, .PDF, .Pdf and any other upper- and lowercase combinations of the letters of the PDF extension (remember that for your Linux server the files foo.pdf and foo.PDF are two different files, unlike Windows and most macOS installations).